Last modified on October 8, 2023, at 16:11

Jimmy Carter

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter.jpg
39th President of the United States
From: January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
Vice President Walter Mondale
Predecessor Gerald Ford
Successor Ronald Reagan
76th Governor of Georgia
From: January 12, 1971 – January 14, 1975
Lieutenant Lester Maddox
Predecessor Lester Maddox
Successor George Busbee
Former State Senator from Georgia's 14th District
From: January 14, 1963 – January 10, 1967
Predecessor (none, district established)
Successor Hugo Carter
Party Democrat
Spouse(s) Rosalynn Carter
Religion Baptist

Jimmy Carter (born James Earl Carter, Jr., on October 1, 1924, age 99) was the 39th President of the United States of America, defeating Republican nominee Gerald Ford in 1976. A relatively unknown, Carter finished second in the crowded Iowa Caucuses behind "Undecided" and was declared the "winner" by the liberal media in search of a new Democrat messiah. With Americans robbed by inflation and unemployment by ending the Vietnam era draft, Carter promised a return to 'honesty' in politics. Promoted by Trilateralists, Carter resurrected the New Deal Coalition of the Solid South and Northern liberals, putting to bed the myth of a Nixonian Southern Strategy.

Carter served from 1977 to 1981, after being a one-term Governor of Georgia from. At that time, the Georgia Constitution did not permit the governor to succeed himself. After a failed presidency marked by disasters in the economy and foreign affairs, and ineffective leadership, Carter was defeated in a landslide for re-election in 1980 by Ronald Reagan, the former governor of California, as the nation moved sharply more conservative but only temporarily.

Despite claiming to be pro-life,[1] Carter spent much of his time as president pushing unsuccessfully for ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment, which would have given federal courts carte blanche to impose taxpayer-funded abortion. In an interview with the Huffington Post in July 2018, Carter claimed that Jesus would approve of homosexual "marriage" and certain abortions.[2][3][4]

There was no opportunity during his term to appoint anyone to the U.S. Supreme Court, but Carter did pack the Ninth Circuit after 10 new judgeships were added there by the Democrat-controlled Congress. Including his total of 15 appointments to that Circuit, which has kept it liberal for more than 40 years, Carter appointed more federal judges in a single term than any other president prior to President Trump.[5]

In an October 2000 survey of 132 prominent professors of history, law, and political science, Carter's presidency was rated in the "Below Average" group; he ranked 30th, with a mean score of 2.47 out of 5.00.[6] This survey, sponsored by the Wall Street Journal and the conservative Federalist Society, ranked Carter ahead of Richard Nixon, and below George H.W. Bush.

Carter was unusually active as an ex-president, serving as an election monitor throughout the world, working with Habitat for Humanity both as its most famous spokesperson and as an actual house builder, and as a self-proclaimed "peace advocate", was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. CBS News reported that Carter considered himself "superior" to other living ex-presidents.[7][8][9] His criticisms of Israel have been considered anti-Semitic and despicable.

Early life

Carter was born and raised on his father's farm in Georgia. He entered the Naval Academy at Annapolis and graduated from there in 1946. Shortly afterwards, on July 7, he married Rosalynn Smith. Carter worked in submarines, attaining the rank of lieutenant, until he resigned in 1953. He became a peanut farmer afterwards.[10] Carter entered politics by running for the Georgia State Senate. He almost lost a close race against Homer Moore, but Carter beat him in the final tally.

Governor of Georgia

Jimmy Carter and Lester Maddox.
"Lester Maddox (pointing gun) and his son (waving axe handle) try to prevent Black protester from entering his Pickrick restaurant, this week 1964—Maddox was elected Governor of Georgia 1966" - Historian Michael Beschloss.[11]

In 1966 Carter unsuccessfully sought the Democrat nomination for Governor of Georgia. This failure significantly affected Carter personally as the story goes by influencing him to turn to a belief in extraterrestrial life and space aliens for comfort. Carter did succeed in his second bid for Governor in 1970. Racism was a major factor in his campaign, in which he criticized his primary challenger Carl Sanders for paying tribute to Martin Luther King, Jr., in an effort to depress Sanders's white vote. Carter said "I have no trouble pitching for [George] Wallace votes and black votes at the same time, I can win this election without a single black vote." Wallace was the Alabama Democrat governor who ran for president in 1968 and famous for saying, "Segregation today, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever."

Upon receiving the endorsement of former Democratic Gov. Lester Maddox who defeated him in the 1966 primary, Carter responded by praising the life-long segregationist: "He has brought a standard of forthright expression and personal honesty to the governor's office, and I hope to live up to his standard." [12] Maddox came to national attention by chasing blacks out of his restaurant with baseball bats or a pistol.

Carter was elected governor, with almost no African American support. For the next four years he presided over state affairs. He presented himself as a populist, the representative of the people as opposed to special interests. Carter emphasized welfare reform, educational advance and budget reform. Once pro-life, he changed his position and supported the legalization of abortion and worked to replace capital punishment in Georgia with life in prison. In 1974, the Georgia Constitution prohibited the Governor from seeking a consecutive term, and Carter was succeeded by Joe Frank Harris. The Georgia Constitution was amended in 1976 to permit the Governor to serve two consecutive terms, and Harris was re-elected in 1978. Later in life Jimmy Carter declared himself to be against abortion.

1976 Presidential Campaign

For a more detailed treatment, see United States presidential election, 1976.

Carter was able to prove he was not nuts and believed in UFOs by filing an official report.

Carter was groomed well before his single term as Governor ended to run for the Presidency in 1976. His campaign, which began in early 1975, exploited popular mistrust of Washington after the disastrous end of American involvement in the Vietnam war in 1975. He campaigned on a call for change. After running second in the Iowa Caucuses to "Undecided", which finished first, the mainstream fake news media proclaimed him the "winner" and as a charismatic figure who would transform the country.

Carter went on to defeat George Wallace in the southern primaries and established himself as a Democrat who could win the south with white votes, which George McGovern had failed to do in 1972. Democrat historians and propagandists claim he won the southern primaries because of his "inspiring and well organized campaign."[13] Running against President Gerald Ford in the general election, Carter had little experience in national politics, however he posed as an outsider and promised to restore honesty and morality to government. On election day, Carter edged out Ford with 50 percent of the vote to 48 percent, with some controversial voter shenanigans in Ohio.

Carter's running mate, Walter Mondale, and his wife Rosalind, met with the psychotic mass murderer and progressive leader, the Rev. Jim Jones during the campaign to help carry the state of California.[14] Jones was one of the few people invited aboard his chartered jet for a private visit. Mondale stated regarding the Peoples Temple that "knowing the congregations deep involvement in the major social and constitutional issues of our country . . . is a great inspiration to me."[15] Jones later was responsible for the deaths of over 900 African Americans before Carter's term ended, the worst mass killing in American history prior to the 9/11 attacks.

Rosalynn Carter called Jones at candidate Jimmy Carter's behest. She held a private dinner with him and had the Peoples Temple leader introduce her at the 1976 grand opening of the San Francisco Democratic Party Headquarters. Jones dined with Rosalynn Carter at the head table at the Democratic National Convention.[16]

UFO conspiracy theorist

Carter reported seeing an unidentified flying object UFO in 1969. He later recalled, "A light appeared and disappeared in the sky . . . I think the light was beckoning me to run in the California primary." [17] Astronomers generally concur that he actually saw the planet Venus.[18]

Presidency (1977-1981)

On taking office Carter proposed radical energy programs, redistributive tax reform, public campaign financing, a consumer protection agency (that Ralph Nader had long championed), labor law reform, and enactment of the Equal Rights Amendment. He fought with fellow Democrats in Congress and achieved little or nothing. Meanwhile, "stagflation" hit the economy hard, as energy shortages, slow growth, escalating inflation and very high interest rates sapped the economy.

It was worse in foreign affairs. Carter did broker a temporary peace in the Middle East, but was forced to abandon détente when the Russians began to exploit American weaknesses around the globe. Carter was forced to restart the Cold War when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979, but his belated actions validated the complaints of conservatives that he offered too little too late. Meanwhile, the nation was humiliated in Iran, where militants held American diplomats captive for 444 days, while Carter proved helpless.

Carter was elected by campaigning on the Misery Index - adding the inflation rate and unemployment rate together, which stood at 13.4%. By 1980 the Misery index stood at 21%. By 1992, after "twelve years of neglect" as Bill Clinton called it, the Misery Index stood at 9.2%.

Carter administration

Desgreratation and busing remained a powerful issue among Democrat voters during the Carter administration. The removal of President's Nixon and Ford and full control of the Congress presented an opportunity for the Democrats to take country backwards in the area of civil rights.[19]
Office Name Term
President Jimmy Carter 1977-1981
Vice President Walter Mondale 1977-1981
Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, Sr. 1977-1980
Edmund Muskie 1980-1981
Secretary of Treasury W. Michael Blumenthal 1977-1979
G. William Miller 1979-1981
Secretary of Defense Harold Brown 1977-1981
Attorney General Griffin Bell 1977-1979
Benjamin R. Civiletti 1979-1981
Secretary of the Interior Cecil Andrus 1977-1981
Secretary of Commerce Juanita M. Kreps 1977-1979
Philip M. Klutznick 1979-1981
Secretary of Labor Ray Marshall 1977-1981
Secretary of Agriculture Robert Bergland 1977–1981
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Joseph A. Califano, Jr. 1977-1979
Secretary of Health and Human Services Patricia R. Harris 1979-1981
Secretary of Education Shirley M. Hufstedler 1977-1981
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Patricia R. Harris 1977-1979
Maurice Landrieu 1979-1981
Secretary of Transportation Brock Adams 1977-1979
Neil E. Goldschmidt 1979-1981
Secretary of Energy James R. Schlesinger 1977–1979
Charles W. Duncan 1979-1981

Civil rights and homosexual activism

Rosalynn Carter and John Wayne Gacey.jpg Rosaynn Carter and Jim Jones.PNG

As First Lady, Rosalynn Carter was a prolific fundraiser. Here she appears with other notable Democrats (left) John Wayne Gacey and (right) the Rev. Jim Jones.
See also: History of Democrat racism, Progressivism, San Francisco values, Peoples Temple Agricultural Collective, and Jonestown Massacre

Carter signed a bill sponsored by the Exalted Cyclops, Democrat Sen. Robert Byrd (D-W.Va.)[20] and Sen. Joe Biden (D-Del.). Byrd held the floor for more than 14 hours in a filibuster against the bi-partisan 1964 Civil Rights Act and Biden sponsored an Amendment in 1975 to repeal sections of the 1964 Act. Byrd's amendment prohibited the use of federal funds to transport students beyond the school closest to their homes. Biden co-sponsored a measure that further restricted the federal government from desegregating city and suburban schools with redistricting measures like school clustering and pairing. This measure won the approval of a majority of Senate Democrats..[21]

Prof. Ronnie Dunn said opposition to busing was motivated by racism.[22] Biden's opposition to integration didn't stop there. HuffPo reported:

Jimmy Carter and Joe Biden
In 1977, two black men nominated for key Justice Department posts by President Jimmy Carter easily won approval from the Senate Judiciary Committee. After confirmation by the full Senate, Drew Days III became the nation’s first black head of the department’s civil rights division and Wade McCree became the second black solicitor general. Only one member of the committee voted against them. It wasn’t segregationists Strom Thurmond (R-S.C.) or James Eastland (D-Miss.). It wasn’t even former Ku Klux Klan member Robert Byrd (D-W.Va.). The lone Judiciary Committee vote against the two men was Sen. Joe Biden (D-Del.).[23]

As First Lady, Rosalynn Carter was a prolific fundraiser, including making appearances with homosexual serial killer John Wayne Gacey[24] and the mass murderer of over 900 African Americans, Jim Jones.[25]

Willie Brown, later mayor of San Francisco and Kamala Harris's mentor, compared Jim Jones to Martin Luther King and Mahatma Gandhi. Brown endorsed Jones as “a close personal friend and a highly trusted brother in the struggle for liberation."[26] Dianne Feinstein joined the rest of the San Francisco board of supervisors in honoring Jones “in recognition of his guidance and inspiration” in furthering “humanitarian programs.” Gov. Jerry Brown spoke at the People's Temple. At its peak, the Temple boasted 20,000 members.

Jim Jones and the Democrat party.jpg

Jones wrote to Jimmy Carter requesting aid for Fidel Castro, whom Jones had earlier met with in Cuba.[27] In a handwritten letter to Jones on White House stationery, the First Lady wrote "Your comments on Cuba have been helpful. I hope your suggestion can be acted on in the near future." Carter also wrote that "I enjoyed being with you during the campaign -- and do hope you can meet Ruth soon", referring to her sister-in-law, Ruth Carter Stapleton.[28] Mondale stated regarding the Temple that "knowing the congregations deep involvement in the major social and constitutional issues of our country . . . is a great inspiration to me."[29] Health and Human Services Secretary Joseph Califano stated "your humanitarian principles and your interest in protecting individual liberty and freedom have made an outstanding contribution to furthering the cause of human dignity." President Carter sent a representative to a dinner at the Temple at which Jones and Gov. Jerry Brown spoke.[30]

As reports seeped back of people who wanted to leave the Peoples Temple in Guyana, Harvey Milk – the first openly gay elected official who was endorsed by the Peoples Temple for San Francisco city councilman – wrote a letter to President Carter defending Rev. Jones "as a man of the highest character," and stating that Temple defectors were trying to "damage Rev. Jones' reputation" with "apparent bold-faced lies".[31] The Temple claimed that "reactionary forces were trying to destroy his [Jones] image because he is the most persistent fighter for social justice.[32]

Economy and budget

Source: The forgotten recession that irrevocably damaged the American economy.[33]

Carter increased government spending. However, when inflation skyrocketed in 1978 he changed his mind. He delayed tax cuts and vetoed the spending programs that he himself proposed to the Congress. Carter then tried to ease inflation by reducing money supply and raising interest rates. All of his efforts proved to be unsuccessful. Inflation and interest rates soon reached their highest levels since World War II.

Americans feared they were losing influence and power under the Carter administration, as this magazine cover shows, Nov. 1978

Increases in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) reached double digits. Carter launched a time-honored tried-and-failed Wage-Price Guidelines program in which businesses could not increase prices or wages above a certain percentage or the company would be prohibited from doing business with the federal government. A company also could find itself on the prohibited list if it earned profits higher than the percentage recommended by the government. The Carter administration employed the marxist argument that higher profits are responsible for higher prices so that if a company made lower profits, its prices would be lower, too.

The rapid change in interest rates sowed the seeds of the Savings and Loan crisis (See Madison Guaranty Savings). Investments in fixed income were becoming less valuable. Holders of both bonds, and pensions being paid to retired people had their life savings wiped out. The stagnant growth of the economy (causing unemployment), in combination with a high rate of inflation, has often been called stagflation, an unprecedented situation in American economics. By 1979, public opinion polls had Carter's popularity lower than Richard Nixon's during Watergate. Carter instructed the Federal Reserve printing presses to go pedal-to-the-metal, worsening inflationary effects, in a failed effort to stage a short-lived election year recovery and delaying a double-dip recession until after Inauguration Day, 1981.

Energy crisis

Carter proposed a national energy program to conserve oil and promote the use of coal and renewable energy sources. He also persuaded Congress to create the Department of Energy, and asked Americans to personally reduce their energy consumption. Although oil companies were insisting on deregulation of the energy industry, Carter advocated a "windfall profits tax" to prevent oil companies from overcharging consumers. Carter's plan did not solve the country's energy crisis. In the summer of 1979 a major oil shortage in the United States took place because of instability in the middle east. After increasing pressure to act, Carter gave several televised address' where he complained that there was a "crisis of confidence that had struck at the very heart and soul of our national will." Although Carter meant the speech to be a timely warning, many Americans interpreted it as President Carter blaming the public for his failures. Critics dubbed it Carter's "malaise speech."

Foreign policy

See also: Carter Doctrine
Rabid Russophobe Zbigniew Brzezinski meets with the Mujahideen Taliban, 1979.[34]

Rather than address the enslavement of the Russian people to Soviet Communism, Carter appointed the notorious Polish Russophobe Zbigniew Brzezinski as his National Security Adviser to forge an anti-Russian, rather than anti-Communist, foreign policy.

In contrast to Carter's economic policies which were uncertain and left the public confused, his foreign policy was more clearly defined, although foreign policy is where Jimmy Carter suffered his worst defeats. In his inaugural speech he stated that "our commitment to human rights must be absolute." He singled out the Soviet Union as a violator of human rights and strongly condemned the country for arresting its citizens for political protests. However, he was criticized for not doing enough to promote his proclaimed human rights foreign policy stance in his administration, such as continuing to support the Indonesian government even while it was implicated in the commission of acts of genocide in the occupation of East Timor.

Carter also tried to remove the U.S. image of interventionism by giving Panamanians control of the Panama Canal. Over conservative opposition he did so—but Panama fell into the hands of a dictator who threatened Americans and had to be overthrown by an American invasion in 1989.

Détente with the Soviet Union collapsed when Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in December 1979. President Carter responded by imposing an embargo on the sale of grain to the Soviet Union, humiliating Moscow by orchestrating a western boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow, and start funding and arming the anti-Soviet forces inside Afghanistan. The policy of détente that was established by President Nixon was over and the "Second Cold War" began.

In 1976, Edward "Ted" Kennedy presented before the U.S. Senate a bill known as the Kennedy Amendment to modify the Foreign Military Assistance Act in order to exclude Chile from the military aid that his country provided to the Latin American republics that had signed the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (TIAR). He was in opposition to President Augusto Pinochet Ugarte who was leading the Military Government. The restrictions were approved and supported by the administration and began to apply to Chile in October 1977. Later on was applied to Argentina and other countries.

Camp David Accords

Carter's greatest and arguably only triumph while in office was a historic peace treaty known as the Camp David Peace Accords, between Israel and Egypt, two nations that had been bitter enemies for decades. The treaty was formally signed in 1979, with most Middle Eastern countries opposed to it.

Iran Hostage Crisis

For a more detailed treatment, see Iran Hostage Crisis.

Blindfolded American hostages being paraded before the public by their Iranian captors, November 5, 1979.

In 1979, a new radical Islamic regime lead by Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran overthrew America's close ally Shah. Thousands of modernizers were arrested, expelled or executed. This had partially been Carter's fault, as in February of that year, when asked whether the Shah would survive the current turmoil, Carter gave an ambiguously worded response stating the following: "I don’t know. I hope so. This is something that is in the hands of the people of Iran. We have never had any intention and don’t have any intention of trying to intercede in the internal political affairs of Iran…. We personally prefer that the Shah maintain a major role in the government, but that’s a decision for the Iranian people to make." This statement ultimately emboldened the radicals due to it essentially communicating that America won't back up its ally.[35][36] In addition, he also spent a lot of time sabotaging the Shah of Iran's chances due to the latter's anti-Human Rights elements, as "human rights" was a major platform for Carter as well as overall being duped by the Ayatollah Khomeini.[37][38][39] In November 1979 student revolutionaries stormed into the American embassy in Tehran and captured 52 United States diplomats as hostages. The US seized all Iranian assets and tried to bargain, a process that dragged on for 444 days. Despite pressure to use military action Carter tried to negotiate with Iran, which proved to be unsuccessful. In April 1980 President Carter approved a rescue attempt (over the opposition of Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, Sr.). To the nations dismay, the attempt failed when several helicopters malfunctioned. Eight serviceman died in the accident. Carter's negotiations with Iran continued throughout 1980. Ironically, the hostages were released just after Carter left office on January 20, 1981, as they were fearful of what President Reagan might do.

The Carter administration viewed the Ayatollah Khomeini as a "progressive force for human rights," the "Iranian Mandela"' and "Iranian Gandhi." One of the Ayatollah's first acts was to issue a fatwa promising paradise for children who joined the Iranian military during the Iran-Iraq war. By 1982, with Shi'a clergy in command, the government asked children, age 9 years old and up, to clear minefields so the regular Army could advance against the Saddam Hussein's Army. [40][41] About 100,000 died as Basij child soldiers building the Islamic Republic of Iran.

1980 reelection campaign

Carter with vice president Walter Mondale.

For a more detailed treatment, see United States presidential election, 1980.
By the time of President Carter's reelection campaign, the country was plagued by problems, including high levels of unemployment, inflation, interest rates and the Iranian hostage crisis. Although incumbent Presidents usually win their party's nomination easily, Carter faced a primary challenge from the more liberal Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy. Carter was able to maintain a lead over Kennedy and defeated him with 51 percent of the vote to 38 percent. After a messy floor fight, Carter won re-nomination; Willie Nelson, who in 2003 hit the top of the Billboard charts with a song celebrating public lynchings,[42] sang the national anthem at the Democratic National Convention.

In the general election, Carter faced two opponents: Conservative and charismatic California Governor Ronald Reagan as the Republican nominee and moderate Illinois Congressman John Anderson running as an Independent. Reagan locked the election in late October of the campaign when, at the Presidential debate, he asked the voters, "Are you better off than you were four years ago?" His relaxed performance helped to dispel fears from the Carter camp that Reagan was a war monger. Reagan won by a large margin, 43.9 million votes for Reagan and 35.5 million votes for Carter. Democrats maintained control of the House of Representatives but by a narrower margin, and lost control of the United States Senate.

Carter left office disappointed and unhappy. He became the first elected President since Herbert Hoover to lose a bid for a second term.

Post Presidency

See also: Israel apartheid slur
Cover of Jimmy Carter's controversial and defamatory book, Peace Not Apartheid.

Carter was active in foreign affairs after his presidency. Carter's 2006 book, Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid, caused Prof. Kenneth Stein, a top aide at the Carter Center to resign because of its depiction of Israel through three decades of diplomatic and military dealings with the Palestinians. Mr. Stein had served as an aide to Mr. Carter during most of those years and considers the book deceitful and malicious. As the book's title suggests, Carter compares Israel with the white supremacist regime of old South Africa. Additionally, fourteen other members of the Carter Center's advisory board resigned over the book.

In the book he made the point that any peace accords reached would fundamentally have to be accompanied by the ceasing of terrorist activity towards Israel, he wrote:

"It is imperative that the general Arab community and all significant Palestinian groups make it clear that they will end the suicide bombings and other acts of terrorism when international laws and the ultimate goals of the Roadmap for Peace are accepted by Israel.

The sentiment was widely criticized. He apologized for the wording of that sentence, but not for his larger message.[43]

Though Carter admitted that Israel is a free equal democracy for all[44] and that his book is about the "territories " exclusively and it's not related to "race" or "racism".[45] He also added that he is aware it's a provocative term.

But even his "facts" and anti-Israel bias was heavily criticized.[46][47]

Columnist at the Washington Post :[48]
It's not clear what he means by using the loaded word "apartheid," since the book makes no attempt to explain it, but the only reasonable interpretation is that Carter is comparing Israel to the former white racist government of South Africa. That is a foolish and unfair comparison, unworthy of the man who won -- and deserved -- the Nobel Peace Prize for bringing Israel and Egypt together in the Camp David Accords, and who has lent such luster to the imaginary office of former president.

In September 2009, Carter caused controversy when he stated that criticisms of Barack Obama was motivated by racism:

"I think, an overwhelming portion, of the intensely demonstrated animosity towed President Barack Obama, is based on the fact that he is a black man. That he's African American...because of a belief among many white people, not just in the South but around the country, that African Americans are not qualified to lead this great country." [49]

John McCain responded to Carter's remarks, "I'm deeply disturbed by those accusations because it's an unfair and untrue commentary on the American people, and them exercising their God-given rights to disagree with the administration. It seems to me that President Carter has earned his place as, if not the worst president in history, certainly the worst in the 20th century." [50]

As President, Carter expressed a goal of making government "competent and compassionate." In pursuit of that vision, he founded The Carter Center in 1982 which has the alleged goal of alleviating human suffering. The Center supposedly promotes democratic elections but was nowhere to be found during the massive 2020 Democrat election fraud. Like the Clinton Foundation, it supposedly has programmes to improve health in developing countries as well. His continued work mediating international disputes, organizing election observations, and fundraising with organizations said to fight disease and hunger. These activities were cited when he was awarded the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize. In his Nobel lecture, Carter praised Democrat segregationist president Woodrow Wilson and declared his support for "international law":

"Our President, Woodrow Wilson, was honored here for promoting the League of Nations, whose two basic concepts were profoundly important: "collective security" and "self-determination." Now they are embedded in international law. Violations of these premises during the last half-century have been tragic failures, as was vividly demonstrated when the Soviet Union attempted to conquer Afghanistan and when Iraq invaded Kuwait.[51]

Agha Hasan Abedi used his connections to Jimmy Carter to publicize the corrupt Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) to heads of state around the world. Abedi made his personal 727 jet available to Carter, and accompanied the former President to Thailand, Tibet, Hong Kong, and the Soviet Union, among other places. Carter introduced Abedi to many heads of state and government from Deng Xiaoping in China to James Callahan in the United Kingdom. Abedi donated a half-million dollars to establish the Carter Presidential Library, and a public policy institute at Emory University. Abedi was committed to the development of the Pakistani nuclear bomb, even donating 500 million rupees for the creation of Pakistan's Gulam Ishaq Research Institute for nuclear development.

In his advanced age Carter's mental facilities began to falter (due to a brain tumor which was successfully removed, and several falls), nevertheless he continued making public speaking appearances (though he was unable to attend the funeral of Billy Graham, not due to his illness, but due to his wife's recent surgery) and worked with the scandal-ridden Habitat for Humanity program.[52] As of 2020, he was the earliest-serving of five living U.S. presidents, the longest-lived president (and the first to reach the age of 95), the longest-retired president and the first to live forty years after initial inauguration.

Jimmy Carter announced in 2019 that he supports the Trump Russia hoax, a completely false and baseless conspiracy theory that claims that Republican US President Donald Trump's victory against Hillary Clinton was brought about by Russian interference.[53]

Basic further reading

  • Bourne, Peter G. Jimmy Carter: A Comprehensive Biography from Plains to Post-Presidency (1997).
  • Brinkley, Douglas. The Unfinished Presidency: Jimmy Carter's Journey beyond the White House (1998). excerpt and text search
  • Fink, Gary M. and Hugh Davis Graham, eds. The Carter Presidency: Policy Choices in the Post-New Deal Era (1998)
  • Gaillard, Frye. Prophet from Plains: Jimmy Carter and His Legacy (2007). excerpt and text search
  • Hargrove, Erwin C. Jimmy Carter as President: Leadership and the Politics of the Public Good (1988).
  • Kaufman, Burton Ira. The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr. (1993), the best survey of his administration
  • Kaufman, Burton Ira. The Carter Years (2006), short biographies of all the major players
  • Morris, Kenneth E. Jimmy Carter, American Moralist (1996).
  • Venezia, Mike. Jimmy Carter: Thirty-Ninth President (Getting to Know the US Presidents) (2008), for middle schools excerpt and text search
  • Wilentz, Sean. The Age of Reagan: A History, 1974-2008 (2007) excerpt and text search

Specialized Bibliography

Biography, personality and rhetoric

  • Bourne, Peter G. Jimmy Carter: A Comprehensive Biography From Plains to Post-Presidency (1997)
  • Flint, Andrew R. and Joy Porter. "Jimmy Carter: The re-emergence of faith-based politics and the abortion rights issue. " Presidential Studies Quarterly (March 2005) 35#1 pp. 28–51
  • Gaillard, Frye. Prophet from Plains: Jimmy Carter and His Legacy (2007). excerpt and text search
  • Hahn, Dan F. "The rhetoric of Jimmy Carter, 1976–1980" in Theodore Windt and Beth Ingold, eds. Essays in Presidential Rhetoric (3rd ed. 1992) pp. 331–365
  • Mattson, Kevin. 'What the Heck Are You Up To, Mr. President?': Jimmy Carter, America's 'Malaise,' and the Speech that Should Have Changed the Country (2009)
  • Ribuffo, Leo P. "God and Jimmy Carter" in M. L. Bradbury and James B. Gilbert, eds. Transforming Faith: The Sacred and Secular in Modern American History (1989) pp. 141–159, by conservative historian
  • Ribuffo, Leo P. "'Malaise' revisited: Jimmy Carter and the crisis of confidence" in John Patrick Diggins, ed. The Liberal Persuasion: Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. and the Challenge of the American Past (1997) by conservative historian
  • Stuckey, Mary E. Jimmy Carter, Human Rights, and the National Agenda (2009) on Presidential rhetoric

Domestic policy

  • Biven, W. Carl Jimmy Carter's Economy: Policy in an Age of Limits (2002) online edition
  • Campagna, Anthony S. Economic Policy in the Carter Administration (1995) 216 pp online edition
  • Dumbrell, John, ed. The Carter Presidency: A Re-evaluation (2nd ed. 1995), British perspective
  • Fink, Gary M. and Hugh Davis Graham, eds. The Carter Presidency: Policy Choices in the Post-New Deal Era (1998)
  • Kaufman, Burton I. The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr (1993), the standard scholarly survey
  • Rosenbaum, Herbert D. and Alexej Ugrinsky, eds. The Presidency and Domestic Policies of Jimmy Carter (1994), essays by experts online edition


  • Aronoff, Yael S., "In Like a Lamb, Out Like a Lion: The Political Conversion of Jimmy Carter," Political Science Quarterly, 121 (Fall 2006), 425–49.
  • Busch, Andrew E. Reagan's Victory: The Presidential Election of 1980 and the Rise of the Right, (2005) online review by Michael Barone
  • Fink, Gary M. Prelude to the Presidency: The Political Character and Legislative Leadership Style of Governor Jimmy Carter (1980). online edition
  • Freedman, Robert. "The Religious Right and the Carter Administration." Historical Journal 2005 48(1): 231-260. Issn: 0018-246x Fulltext: in Swetswise
  • Gillon, Steven M. The Democrats' Dilemma: Walter F. Mondale and the Liberal Legacy (1992)
  • Hargrove, Erwin C. Jimmy Carter as President: Leadership and the Politics of the Public Good (1988).
  • Jones, Charles O. The Trusteeship Presidency: Jimmy Carter and the United States Congress (1988)
  • Kaufman, Burton I. The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr (1993), the standard scholarly survey
  • Kaufman, Burton Ira. The Carter Years (2006), short biographies of all the major players
  • Morgan, Iwan. "Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and the New Democratic Economics." Historical Journal 2004 47(4): 1015-1039. Issn: 0018-246x Fulltext: in Swetswise
  • Pomper, Gerald M., ed. The Election of 1980: Reports and Interpretations (1981)
  • Ranney, Austin, ed. The American Elections of 1980 (1982), essays by political scientists
  • Strong, Robert A. "Recapturing leadership: The Carter administration and the crisis of confidence," Presidential Studies Quarterly (Fall 1986) 16#3 pp 636–650
  • White, Theodore H. America in Search of Itself: The Making of the President, 1956–1980 (1982), classic narrative of presidential campaigns
  • Witcover, Jules. Marathon: The Pursuit of the Presidency, 1972–1976 (1977), very detailed narrative

Foreign Policy

  • Berggren, D. Jason and Rae, Nicol C. "Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, Foreign Policy, and an Evangelical Presidential Style." Presidential Studies Quarterly 2006 36(4): 606-632. Issn: 0360-4918 Fulltext: in Swetswise and Ingenta
  • Clymer, Kenton. "Jimmy Carter, Human Rights, and Cambodia." Diplomatic History 2003 27(2): 245-278. Issn: 0145-2096 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco
  • Dumbrell, John, ed. The Carter Presidency: A Re-evaluation (2nd ed. 1995), British perspective
  • Harris, David. The Crisis: the President, the Prophet, and the Shah—1979 and the Coming of Militant Islam (2004)
  • Houghton, David Patrick. US Foreign Policy and the Iran Hostage Crisis (2001) Patrick Houghton&dcontributors=David%20Patrick%20Houghton online edition
  • Kaufman, Burton I. The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr (1993), the standard scholarly survey
  • Rosenbaum, Herbert D. and Alexej Ugrinsky, eds. Jimmy Carter: Foreign Policy and Post-Presidential Years (1994), essays by experts online edition
  • Schmitz, David F. and Vanessa Walker. "Jimmy Carter and the Foreign Policy of Human Rights: the Development of a Post-cold War Foreign Policy." Diplomatic History 2004 28(1): 113-143. Issn: 0145-2096 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco
  • Skidmore, David. Reversing Course: Carter's Foreign Policy, Domestic Politics, and the Failure of Reform (1996).
  • Stein, Kenneth W. Heroic Diplomacy: Sadat, Kissinger, Carter, Begin and the Quest for Arab-Israeli Peace (1999) W. Stein&dcontributors=Kenneth%20W.%20Stein online edition
  • Strong, Robert A. Working in the World: Jimmy Carter and the Making of American Foreign Policy (2000)
  • Thornton, Richard C. The Carter Years: Toward a New Global Order (1991) 572 pp. online edition

Post-presidential years

  • Brinkley, Douglas. The Unfinished Presidency: Jimmy Carter's Journey beyond the White House (1998). excerpt and text search
  • Dershowitz, Alan. The Case Against Israel's Enemies: Exposing Jimmy Carter and Others Who Stand in the Way of Peace (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Evans, Mike. Jimmy Carter: The Liberal Left and World Chaos: A Carter/Obama Plan That Will Not Work (2009), conservative critique

Primary sources

Books by aides

  • Califano, Joseph A., Jr. Governing America: An insider's report from the White House and the Cabinet. 1981
  • Jordan, Hamilton. Crisis: The Last Year of the Carter Presidency. 1982
  • Lance, Bert. The Truth of the Matter: My Life in and out of Politics. 1991

See also


  1. claiming to be "born again". The Presidents by Richard Kirkendall, pg. 552
  2. Williams, Thomas D. (July 9, 2018). Jimmy Carter: Jesus Would ‘Approve’ of Gay Marriage, Some Abortions. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  3. Chasmar, Jessica (July 9, 2018). Jimmy Carter: 'I believe that Jesus would approve of gay marriage,' some abortions. The Washington Times. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  4. Bohon, Dave (July 12, 2018). Jimmy Carter Sounds Off on Jesus, Gay Marriage, Abortion. The New American. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  6. Presidential Leadership: Rating the Best and the Worst in the White House (Wall Street Journal Book, 2004)
  7. Jimmy Carter: I'm A Superior Ex-President, , September 20, 2010.
  8. Obama, Racism, and Jimy Carter, By Jeff Stein, CQ Politics, 9/17/2009.
  9. The Roots of the I.Q. Debate, Eugenics and Social Control, By Margaret Quigley, Political Research Associates.
  10. Encyclopedia of Presidents, Jimmy Carter, by Linda R. Wade, Children's Press, Chicago, 1989, pp. 11-33.
  13. The American Vision, pg. 966
  14. When Deputy Minister Ptolemy Reid traveled to Washington, D.C. in September 1977 to sign the Panama Canal Treaties, Mondale asked him, "How's Jim?", which indicated to Reid that Mondale had a personal interest in Jones' well being, p. 173.
    Moore, Rebecca. American as Cherry Pie Template:Webarchive, Jonestown Institute, San Diego State University
  15. "First Lady Among Cult's References" "First Lady Among Cult's References; Mondale and Califano also listed", Los Angeles Times, November 21, 1978. 
  16. Layton, Deborah. Seductive Poison. Anchor, 1999. ISBN|978-0-385-48984-. p. 53.
  17. Jimmy Carter UFO
  18. Val Morgan, et al. Rumor (1984).
  20. Klansman take an oath; once a Klansman always a Klansman.
  27. Reiterman, Tim, and John Jacobs. Raven (book)|Raven: The Untold Story of Rev. Jim Jones and His People. Dutton, 1982. ISBN|978-0-525-24136-2. page 305.
  28. LA Times November 21, 1978
  29. "First Lady Among Cult's References" "First Lady Among Cult's References; Mondale and Califano also listed", Los Angeles Times, November 21, 1978. 
  30. Mehren, Elizabeth, "Politicians Defend Associations With Jones", Oakland Tribune, November 21, 1978
  31. Milk, Harvey Letter Addressed to President Jimmy Carter, Dated February 19, 1978 Template:Webarchive
  32. Peoples Temple, Victims of Conspiracy Brochure, Jonestown Alternative Considerations, San Diego State University

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    Archived copy. Retrieved on 2019-01-31.
  33. The forgotten recession that irrevocably damaged the American economy, Jeff Spross, The Week, April 18, 2016.
  40. Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), Iraqi Retreats, 1982-84,, retrieved 20 March 2007.
  41. Ahmadinejad's Demons: A Child of the Revolution Takes Over, Matthias Küntzel, The New Republic, 24 April 2006 .
  43. Washington Post, January 24, 2007
  44. (for example, in LATimes, Dec. 8, 2006: "The book is devoted to circumstances and events in Palestine and not in Israel, where democracy prevails and citizens live together and are legally guaranteed equal status."
  45. NPR and Brendeis, Jan.07
  46. One example: Bearing False Witness: Jimmy Carter's Palestine, Peace Not Apartheid, Andrea Levin, Camera, the Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America, 2007 [1]
  47. Ex-President for Sale. January 08, 2007. has been bought and paid for by Arab money. In his recent book tour to promote Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid, Carter has been peddling a particularly nasty bit of bigotry...
  48. Michael Kinsley, "It's Not Apartheid." The Washington Post, December 12, 2006
  50. McCain:Jimmy Carter worst president ever,, September 18, 2009
  51. Text of Carter's Nobel Lecture Jimmy Carter Library and Museum, 2002.
  53. Jimmy Carter suggests Trump is an illegitimate president

External links

"The Mufti.. concocted a new kind of antisemitism that combined traditional Muslim antisemitism, like the anti-Jewish verses you find in the Koran, with the Nazi antisemitism that demonised Jews... His whole ideology was antisemitic and from the very beginning he targeted Jews, not Zionists."
The difference between lies and reality is sometimes just a color on a map

W. Ormsby-Gore as he was preparing the royal commission report, "Though I knew there was ill-feeling between Jews and Arabs, I had not realized the depth and intensity of the hatred with which the Jews are held by the Arabs..."
"It is not Israel's settlement blocks but rather the Palestinian ideological blockade that constitutes the biggest barrier to peaceful arrangements . The Jew-hatred in this region must no longer be played down as a kind of local custom ..."
The only tweet (July 2014) on the Twitter account of the late American Elan Ganeles - murdered by Arab-Islamist "Palestinian" on Feb 27, 2023 hy"d: "I think you're always going to have tension in the Middle East, when there's [are] people who want to kill Jews, and the Jews don't want to be killed, and neither side is willing to compromise."